Around 2010, the Secoya nation, a small indigenous nation in Sucumbios (canton Shushufindi), signed a contract with the company Palmeras del Ecuador to create an African palm plantation. The company advised the community to request credit from the National Financing Corporation (CFN) to purchase the seeds and complete the plantings. CFN provided some initial financing and in 2010 the Secoya cut down 180 hectares of native forest to plant the African palm. In the course of processing the CFN credit, it came to light that the Secoya had not obtained permission from the Ministry of Environment to cut native forest (required under Article 78 of the Forestry Law). Citing violations of the rights of nature (for cutting native forest), in 2011 the Ministry of Environment fined the community $375,000 to pay for the restoration of the area. In levying the fine, the Ministry of Environment cited articles of the constitution relating to the rights of nature, including Articles 10, 71-73, 321, 396, 397.