In 2014, the Ministry of Environment filed criminal charges against Luis Alfredo Obando for a “crime against Nature” due to his killing of a Jaguar (an endangered species) in 2012. The lawsuit cites nature’s right to exist and Art. 247 of the Penal Code, which identifies crimes against wildlife. In the first instance, the lawsuit was heard by the Criminal Court of Guarantees of Napo. The court found Obando guilty and ordered him to pay damages to the Ministry of Environment. Obando appealed the ruling to the Provincial Court of Justice of Napo. The provincial court rejected Obando’s appeal and increased the sentence to six months in prison due to aggravating circumstances. Obando appealed the ruling to the National Court of Justice, which rejected the appeal and upheld the six-month sentence.